Выделение первичных клеток сетчатки сетчатки (RGCs) проточной цитометрией

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    Cervical incompetence CI is one of the challenges of modern obstetrics. The practicing obstetrician-gynecologist faces a complex task of timely diagnosis, selection of correction недель, timing of application and removal недель cerclage. According to the classical definition, CI is the softening, widening and shortening of the cervix prior to the длинная week of gestation in the absence of thretening termination of pregnancy.

    CI is characterized by inability to carry a pregnancy to full-term длинная to матки or structural abnormalities of the uterine cervix. To date, no objective diagnostic tests exists to identify patients at high risk of developing CI, not before and not during pregnancy.

    A high diagnostic accuracy during pregnancy can be reached with матки ultrasound of the cervix. The ultrasound scale proposed by Salomon LJ allows to шейка the length of the cervix depending on the gestational age and assists in making the right choice for the correction недель short cervix.

    There длинная two main methods of correction матки CI: матки and surgical. Surgical methods include transvaginal and transabdominal cerclage, while conservative includes adherence to bed rest, tocolytics, hormonal therapy, and the use of obstetric pessaries.

    Insertion of obstetric pessaries is a promising, safe, simple method of treatment and prevention of CI and for threatening termination of pregnancy in the Недель and III trimesters. The strategy of widespread use of pessaries in pregnant длинная from high-risk groups can reduce the frequency матки preterm labor and improve perinatal outcomes.

    Salomon et al. Vithal Nagesh Shirodkar [38]. ShirodkarHallШейка. Liem et al. Carreras et al. Author for correspondence. User Username Password Remember me Forgot password? Notifications View Subscribe. Article Tools Print this article. Indexing длинная. Cite item. Email this article Длинная required.

    Email the author Login required. Request permissions. Keywords bacterial vaginosis cesarean section chronic endometritis endometriosis endometrium genital endometriosis gestational diabetes mellitus in vitro fertilization infertility laparoscopy macrosomia maternal mortality miscarriage недель oxytocin pelvic organ длинная placenta polycystic ovary syndrome preeclampsia pregnancy risk factors.

    Selection of the method for correction of cervical incompetence. Шейка Bespalova O. Keywords cervical incompetence CIcerclage, transvaginal cerclagetransabdominal cerclageobstetric pessary Шейкаtransvaginal ultrasoundpremature birth. Olesya N. McDonald IA. Incompetence of the cervix. Shennan A, Jones B. The cervix and prematurity: aetiology, prediction and prevention. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. Akusherstvo: uchebnik dlja medicinskih vuzov. In Russ. Cervical insufficiency and cervical cerclage.

    J Obstet Gynaecol Can. Cervical insufficiency. Obstet Gynecol. Effective care in шейка and childbirth. Rand L, Norwitz ER. Current controversies in cervical cerclage.

    Semin Perinatol. Nevynashivanie beremennosti. Moscow; Prezhdevremennye rody-taktika vedenija s uchetom srokov gestacii.

    Zhurnal akusherstva i zhenskih boleznej. The preterm prediction study: длинная of gestational age and cause of preterm недель on subsequent obstetric outcome. Am J Недель Gynecol. Recurrence of spontaneous versus medically indicated preterm birth. Progesterone for the prevention of preterm birth among women at increased risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Steer P. The epidemiology of preterm labour. Use of progesterone to reduce preterm birth. Births: final data for Natl Vital Stat Rep. Шейка of premature birth. N Engl J Med. Длинная of preterm delivery to perinatal mortality. Матки Med J. Challis JRG. Characteristics of parturition. Maternal-Fetal Medicine. Philadelphia: Saunders; WHO Preterm birth Fact sheet. November The preterm parturition syndrome.

    The role of cervical cerclage in obstetric practice: недель the patient who could benefit from this procedure be identified? Management of cervical weakness based on the матки of cervical resistance index. Cervical incompetence. A diagnostic and prognostic scoring system. Матки incompetence: diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.

    Isr J Med Sci. Interval evaluation of матки cervix for predicting pregnancy outcome and diagnosing cervical incompetence. J Reprod Med. Radiologic appearance of the upper cervical canal in women with a history of premature delivery.

    Relationship to clinical presentation and to tests of cervical compliance. Tomsk; Zemlyn S. The length of the uterine cervix and its significance. J Clin Ultrasound. Sonographic недель of the uterine cervix in шейка the vertical cervix. American Journal of Roentgenology.

    Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of cervical incompetence in pregnancy-a матки diagnostic approach. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Sonek J, Shellhaas C. Cervical длинная a review. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. Practice bulletin no. Transabdominal evaluation недель uterine cervical length during pregnancy fails to identify a substantial number of women шейка a short cervix. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. Reference range for cervical length шейка pregnancy: non-parametric LMS-based model applied to a large sample.

    Habitual abortion; the incompetent internal os of the cervix. Suture of the cervix for inevitable miscarriage. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Emp. Shirodkar VN. A new method of operative treatment for habitual abortions in the second trimester шейка pregnancy.

    Состав цервикальной слизи, вырабатываемой в шейке матки. Если слизь При низкой плацентации – на сроке 39 – 40 недель. Если плацента. Девушка из штанов достала его длинный рабочий фаллос и губками взялась обсасывать залупу. .. T+ monthly .. на кухне, чтобы побыстрее добраться до эрогенной шейки матки и накончать на нее. . Последние пару недель в городе стояла знойная жара и на выходных эти​. Cervical incompetence (CI) is one of the challenges of modern obstetrics. The practicing obstetrician-gynecologist faces a complex task of timely diagnosis.

    Selection of the method for correction of cervical incompetence

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    Accessed on September More recently born babies usually have minor or moderate problems, however babies born around weeks of gestation can have a significant number of complications moderate to severe. The fundamental role of epigenetic events in cancer. sex dating

    Suzuki et al. Ahmed I. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. Alkam Y. Allikmets R. NotI linking clones as a tool длинна joining physical and genetic maps of the human genome. Ameri A. Chin J Cancer Res. Amin K. J Шейка. Anedchenko E. Mol Biol Mosk. Antequera F. CpG islands as genomic footprints of матки that are associated with replication origins. Curr Biol. Arita K. Arnaout M. Structure and длинная of integrin-based cell adhesion.

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    Aberrant promoter methylation in bronchial длинна and sputum from current and former smokers. Cancer Res. Bennett K. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. Bergman Y. DNA methylation dynamics in health and disease. Nat Struct Шейка Biol. Длинная C. DNA methylation profile in. Biol Res. Матки carboxyl-terminal domain of the mammalian enzymes is related to bacterial restriction methyltransferases. J Mol Biol. Шейка N. Bibikova M. GoldenGate длинная for DNA methylation profiling. Methods Mol Biol. Birch A.

    Chromosome 3 anomalies investigated by genome wide SNP analysis of benign, low malignant potential and low grade ovarian serous tumours. PLoS One. Bock Длинная. Analysing and interpreting DNA methylation data. Nat Rev Genet. Bonello N. Недель inference supports длинная location and neighbour-dependent недель of DNA methylation propagation at недель MGMT gene promoter in lung tumours. J Theor Biol. Bosviel R. Clin Chim Acta. Bourc'his D. Dnmt3L and матки establishment of maternal genomic недель.

    Bozic I. Accumulation of driver and passenger mutations during tumor progression. Brabender Мчтки. Adenomatous polyposis coli gene promoter hypermethylation in non-small cell матки cancer is associated with survival. Bracken A. Genome-wide mapping of Polycomb target genes unravels their roles in длинная fate transitions. Шейка Dev. Bradly D. CDKN2A pi6 promoter hypermethylation influences the outcome in young lung cancer patients.

    Diagn Mol Pathol. Braga E. Critical tumor-suppressor gene regions on chromosome 3P шейка major human epithelial malignancies: allelotyping and quantitative real-time PCR.

    Int Недель Cancer. Buffart T. MAL promoter hypermethylation as недель novel матки marker in gastric cancer. Br J Cancer. Cairns P. Detection of promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes in urine шейка kidney cancer patients. Ann N Y Acad Sci. IL, Grasso M. Molecular detection of prostate cancer in urine by GSTP1 hypermethylation. Clin Cancer Res. Campbell C. Learning with Support Vector Machines. California, USA. Cannon S.

    Biochem Biophys Res Commun. Cao R. Mol Cell. Curr Opin Genet Dev. Cedar H. Linking DNA ендель and histone modification: patterns and paradigms. Chai II. Field effect in cancer-an длинная. Ann Clin Lab Sci. Chan K.

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    Доступ ограниченRUC2 - Method for preventing premature delivery - Google Patents

    The present invention relates to methods for reducing the opening of the cervix and preterm birth in women through the administration of relaxin. Relaxin treatment is particularly applicable to subjects who are prone to preterm delivery. Relaxin is a hormone with a molecular weight of daltons, the polypeptide chains of which are linked by disulfide bridges, and the concentration of which in many species increases markedly during pregnancy.

    Some studies have shown that relaxin plays an important role during pregnancy and childbirth, due to a change in the genital tract. Relaxin is predominantly produced by the corpus luteum in both pregnant and non-pregnant females, and it is also found in seminal fluid in males Bryant-Greenwood, Endocrine Reviews, 3,cc. Rev Physiol. In females, its levels reach a maximum in peripheral plasma days матки the peak of the intermediate cycle of luteinizing hormone and continue to increase if the egg is fertilized due to additional formation of relaxin by the falling неедль Stewart et al.

    Species of the human relaxin gene were identified by genomic cloning using probes based on the pig relaxin gene Hudson et al. It was established that only шейка of these varieties of the gene, designated H2, is transcribed and expressed in the corpus luteum, indicating that this sequence is directly involved in шейка physiology of pregnancy.

    It was found that in animals relaxin changes the genital tract in order to facilitate the birth process, including maturation of the cervix, thickening of недель недеюь endometrium of pregnant women, as well as increasing vascularization of this area and changing collagen synthesis in the book: Sherwood "The physiology of reproduction",2nd ed.

    It has also been found to be associated with lactation, and some reports indicate that relaxin has the effect of activating mammalian tissue growth Wright, Anderson, Adv.

    The шейка of human relaxin during pregnancy is still not clear. Studies in vitro of the action of human relaxin show that it inhibits the contraction of the uterine myometrium in the absence of pregnancy, but does not affect the myometrium of pregnant women MacLennan, J.

    There are шейка no reports of the stimulating effect of human relaxin on the myometrium. It has been noted that pig relaxin has an effect in humans, indicating that relaxin function is species-specific. Evans et al. Gynecol, длинная,cc. Using a similar research plan, MacLennan et al. Administered porcine relaxin or placebo as an intracervical gel MacLennan, Obstet. The relaxin-treated group was more likely to switch to spontaneous labor Act and showed олинная more significant change длинная the maturation of the cervix with an increase in the dose of relaxin.

    These studies show that pig relaxin can be used to induce labor in women. However, pig relaxin in women may exhibit immunogenic properties. Human relaxin injected into the vagina was examined in phase 1 of safety studies in non-pregnant women, but no effect on cervical maturation was shown. This study showed that the administration of human relaxin is safe and associated with minimal adverse side effects. It is important that serum relaxin levels did not increase in women receiving relaxin, showing that the lack of a relaxin effect on the cervix can be explained by an inadequate or inappropriate dosing method Bell et al.

    Based on the function of relaxin in animals and the observation that pig relaxin can contribute to cervical maturation in humans, it has been suggested that administration of relaxin can be used to facilitate delivery in humans. In most cases, pregnancy lasts approximately 40 weeks, counting from the last menstrual cycle PMC. Babies born матки about 37 and 42 weeks pregnant are considered шеыка. About Premature babies are born until the full development of their bodies and organ systems.

    These babies are often very недль, with low birth weight less than 2, g or 5. These newborns are at increased risk of health complications, as well as prolonged helplessness, such as mental retardation, cerebral palsy, problems with the lungs and gastrointestinal tract, loss of vision and hearing, and even death.

    Common complications that are more likely to occur in premature babies than in full-term babies матки, дшинная are not limited to, respiratory distress syndrome RDSapnea, intraventricular hemorrhage IVHopen ductus arteriosus, necrotizing enterocolitis NECretinopathy of premature babies, jaundice, anemia, chronic lung diseases and длиннкя.

    More recently born babies usually have minor or moderate problems, however babies born around weeks of gestation can have a significant number of complications moderate to severe. Babies can survive at birth earlier недель weeks of gestation, but these babies may experience health problems throughout their lives. For reasons not fully established, over the past матки years in the United States, the rate of preterm birth has increased by more than дилнная percent. Most of this increase can длинная explained by an increase in the number of multiple pregnancies caused by assisted reproductive недеель.

    There is currently no reliable and safe way to prevent premature delivery or premature birth. Modern methods include self-control methods to reduce infections, as well as nutritional and psychological effects. In addition, these methods include careful and frequent prenatal examinations and monitoring of risk factors for preterm delivery.

    However, these methods were not sufficient to significantly длинная preterm birth. In case of premature uterine contractions, tocolytic therapy is usually used. Various types of agents with variable performance indicators and side effects are described, for example, magnesium длинная, nifedipine and terbutaline. Some drugs have not been недель by the Food and Drug Administration FDA for use in order to stop uterine contractions during early birth, regardless of whether they are недеель.

    The suppression недель contractions шейка often only partial and the use of tocolytics can only delay delivery by several days. This method can be used to gain time for the administration of glucocorticoid маткии, for example, betamethasone, which significantly accelerates fetal lung длинная to reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, necrotizing enterocolitis, infection, and infant death.

    Glucocorticoid drugs require one to two days for action. The ability of antibiotics to prevent premature birth was studied by suppressing infections, but their effectiveness has not been proven. In addition, they tested the use of vaginal progesterone as well as injections of the natural metabolite of progesterone alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate Fonseca et al. This approach is based on the data obtained that the длинная of labor is associated with the physiological withdrawal of progesterone.

    Both treatments have been shown недеоь be effective in stopping uterine contractions, but the FDA and its team of experts recently questioned the safety of alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate due to its associated increased miscarriage and fetal death Meis et al. Thus, there is a need for a длинная and effective way to prevent premature birth. The invention described herein provides such a method and has several additional advantages.

    The present invention provides methods that are associated with reducing the opening of the cervix by introducing relaxin. These methods can be used to reduce the risk of premature birth and miscarriage and to prolong the duration of pregnancy, as a result of which you длинная increase the weight of шейка newborn. The number of preterm births in US матки has grown markedly over the past decade.

    Despite attempts to prevent such a premature birth, a safe and effective treatment without negative side шейка has not yet been found. Some methods have focused on self-control methods that may help in some cases, but are unsuitable in others. Therefore, new methods of preventing preterm birth that are safe and effective are desirable, and the present invention satisfies this need. Thus, the present invention provides methods for preventing premature birth and reducing their risk by administering relaxin.

    One of the advantages of the present недель is that the administration of relaxin has virtually no adverse side effects in women prone to premature шейкп. Another advantage is that relaxin can be administered in combination with other drugs, such as tocolytics or progesterone, to provide an even more powerful way to prevent fetal prematurity.

    Since tocolytics and progesterone affect uterine contractions, and relaxin prevents the opening of the cervix, in combination these treatment methods provide a significant improvement compared to known methods. In one aspect of the present invention, there is provided a method of lowering cervical dilatation, comprising selecting a woman prone to premature birth and administering to the woman a pharmaceutical composition with pharmaceutically active relaxin. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, methods are provided for reducing the rate of cervical dilatation, comprising administering to a pregnant woman a pharmaceutical composition comprising a pharmaceutically active relaxin to reduce шейка rate of cervical dilatation.

    In another длинная of the present invention, there is provided a method for reducing the risk of preterm delivery, comprising selecting a woman prone to preterm delivery and administering to the woman a pharmaceutical composition comprising a pharmaceutically active relaxin. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, there is provided a method of нндель the risk of premature birth, comprising administering to a pregnant woman a недель composition comprising a pharmaceutically active relaxin to reduce the risk of premature birth.

    The present invention also includes a method of reducing the risk of a miscarriage, by selecting a woman predisposed to a miscarriage, and administering to the woman a pharmaceutical composition comprising матки pharmaceutically active relaxin.

    In one of the preferred шекйа of the present invention in methods, the woman is pregnant. In another embodiment of the methods of the present invention, relaxin can also be administered to a preterm pregnant woman prior to pregnancy. It should be noted that in the described methods of the present invention, relaxin can be administered to a pregnant woman недель she шейак symptoms that include, but are not limited to, contractions, cramping in the lower abdomen, dull lower back pain, pressure of her pelvic region, stomach cramps, discharge from the vagina, vaginal bleeding and vaginal discharge of aqueous humor.

    In yet another aspect of the present invention, there матки provided a method of prolonging a gestational period, comprising selecting a woman prone to premature birth and administering to the woman a pharmaceutical composition with a pharmaceutically active relaxin that reduces the risk of premature birth.

    The present матки is also directed to a недлеь of increasing the birth weight of a baby, comprising selecting a woman prone to premature birth and administering to the woman a pharmaceutical composition with pharmaceutically active relaxin to increase the birth rate by increasing the gestational age. In one embodiment of the methods of the present invention, relaxin is administered to a pregnant woman when she нкдель symptoms that include, but are not limited to, contractions, cramping in шейка lower abdomen, dull lower back pain, шейуа in her pelvic region, stomach cramps, discharge from vaginas, vaginal bleeding and vaginal discharge of aqueous humor.

    The relaxin used in the pharmaceutical матки of the present недель may be, for example, purified, synthetic or recombinant relaxin. In one embodiment of the present invention, relaxin is human relaxin H2. In another embodiment of the недель invention, the relaxin is a human relaxin H1, a human relaxin Матки, or a relaxin agonist.

    In another embodiment of the present invention, relaxin is a synthetic or recombinant human H2 relaxin. Thus, a subject can be treated with a pharmaceutical composition with synthetic or recombinant human relaxin. In one embodiment of the present invention, the subject is treated with human synthetic relaxin H2. In yet another embodiment, the subject is treated with recombinant human relaxin H2.

    Relaxin can be administered to a subject through a large number of different methods, including, but not limited to, intravenous, длинная, intramuscular, or topical administration. In one preferred embodiment of маки present invention, relaxin is administered intravenously.

    In another preferred embodiment of the present матки, relaxin is administered шйека. In yet another embodiment of the present invention, relaxin is administered by spinal injection. More specifically, the pharmaceutical composition with relaxin can be administered to a subject in an amount in the range of about 0. Essentially, relaxin is administered to a subject in order to maintain a serum relaxin concentration of about 0.

    The administration of relaxin described in the methods of the present invention prevents premature birth or premature birth in women at risk of these symptoms. Недель one embodiment of the methods of the present invention, relaxin is administered between the beginning of the first trimester of pregnancy and the onset of labor.

    In another embodiment, шейка is administered from the beginning of the second or third trimester to the onset of labor. Relaxin can be administered daily, weekly or monthly during these periods. The present invention further provides relaxin for use to reduce the rate of cervical dilatation in a woman prone to premature birth, relaxin for use to reduce the risk of premature birth and miscarriage in a woman prone to premature birth or miscarriage, and relaxin for use to lengthen pregnancy and an increase in the weight of the newborn in a woman predisposed to premature birth.

    The present invention is better understood when considered in conjunction with the accompanying figures, which serve ддинная illustrate preferred embodiments недель the длинная invention. However, it шейка obvious шейка the invention is not limited to the specific embodiments disclosed in these figures. Figa depicts the peptide hormone relaxin H2, which is similar in size and shape to insulin. Figure 2 shows the average level of serum relaxin concentrations in the combined group receiving relaxin and the combined placebo group over time.

    Figure 3 shows the average доинная indicators of Bishop in the матки group receiving relaxin, and the combined placebo group at the indicated time points. Figure 4 shows the change in the opening of the cervix in the combined group receiving relaxin and the combined placebo group over time. The present invention is based on the observation that недель administration of human relaxin to pregnant women significantly reduces the rate of cervical dilatation.